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Krathwol's Affective Domain Taxonomy
Krathwohl's affective domain taxonomy is perhaps the best known of any of the affective taxonomies. "The taxonomy is ordered according to the principle of internalization. Internalization refers to the process whereby a person's affect toward an object passes from a general awareness level to a point where the affect is 'internalized' and consistently guides or controls the person's behavior (Seels & Glasgow, 1990, p. 28)."
The taxonomy is presented in five stages:
Receiving describes the stage of being aware of or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas, material, or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them. Examples include: to differentiate, to accept, to listen (for), to respond to.
Responding describes the second stage of the taxonomy and refers to a committment in some small measure to the ideas, materials, or phenomena involved by actively responding to them. Examples are: to comply with, to follow, to commend, to volunteer, to spend leisure time in, to acclaim.
Valuing means being willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, or phenomena. Examples include: to increase measured proficiency in, to relinquish, to subsidize, to support, to debate.
Organization is the fourth stage of Krathwohl’s taxonomy and involves relating the new value to those one already holds and bringing it into a harmonious and internally consistent philosophy. Examples are: to discuss, to theorize, to formulate, to balance, to examine.
Characterization by value or value set means acting consistently in accordance with the values the individual has internalized. Examples include: to revise, to require, to be rated high in the value, to avoid, to resist, to manage, to resolve.
Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., and Masia, B.B. (1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay Co.
Seels and Glasgow (1990). Exercises in instructional design. Columbus OH: Merrill Publishing Company.